2.5%), and calendar-year mortality (9% vs. sufferers who have cirrhosis and diarrhea but not a C. difficile infection. Burden on healthcare CDI was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality in hospitalized liver disease patients, emphasizing the importance of having a high index of suspicion for the?early diagnosis and appropriate initiation of treatment. There is also a difficulty in discharging?these cohorts of patients, which unfortunately can increase the length of stay in a healthcare facility. Objectives The objectives of this literature review is to identify MPTP hydrochloride Tnfrsf10b the risk factors associated with increased mortality in patients with CDI in liver cirrhosis. Pathology Patients with cirrhosis may be at particular risk of developing CDI for three reasons. First, antibiotic use is common in cirrhosis patients. Prophylactic use of broad-spectrum quinolone or beta-lactam antibiotics is standard practice to prevent infections and reduce mortality in cirrhotic patients [1]. Second, cirrhotic patients also commonly receive proton pump inhibitor (PPI), both for established indications, such as symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux, and prior peptic ulcer disease, as well as for unproven indications such as healing of esophageal ulcers after endoscopic band ligation [1]. Finally, there is frequently a need for hospitalization to treat complications of cirrhosis, such as variceal bleeding, ascites, or encephalopathy, which places patients in an environment in which there is a high likelihood of exposure to C. difficile [1]. Patients with cirrhosis have an impaired local gut immune response, increased bowel wall edema, and poor intestinal motility, all of which can promote perturbations of the intestinal microflora and bacterial overgrowth [1]. Review Materials and methods We conducted a literature search of journal articles using the US National Library of Medicine PubMed database, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases, ClinicalTrials.gov for studies, and ISI Web of Science. No date restrictions were placed on the search. A thorough search for controlled clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted. We used the keywords “clostridium difficile infection” and “cirrhotic liver disease.” Included studies were studies published in English that assessed the association between CDI and cirrhotic liver disease. Reference lists were also screened. From the search results, articles with irrelevant titles were discounted, with the remaining abstracts examined for relevance. The authors of this review independently determined the eligibility of studies and assessed the methodology of the included studies. In this review article, we will discuss the risk factors associated with increased mortality in patients with CDI in liver cirrhosis. See Table?1?below for more on risk factors for patients with CDI. Table 1 Review of studies on Clostridium difficile infection in liver cirrhosisCDAD:?C. MPTP hydrochloride difficile-associated diarrhea; CDI:?Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection;?LOS:?length of stay; PPI:?proton MPTP hydrochloride pump inhibitor; WBC: white blood cell;?HA-CDI:?hospital-acquired-CDI; MELD:?model end-stage liver disease Study Author(s)Study NameFindingsPepin et al.?[2]Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: A changing pattern of disease severity.Predictors of MPTP hydrochloride severe disease in patients with CDAD include age over 65, fever, nosocomial acquisition, nasogastric tube placement, immunosuppression, peak WBC, and peak creatinine.Kruger et al.?[3]Early readmission predicts increased mortality in cirrhosis patients after Clostridium difficile infection.Patients with MPTP hydrochloride CDI and cirrhosis experienced higher 30-day readmission rates (33% vs. 24%), index admission mortality (5% vs. 2.5%), and calendar-year mortality (9% vs. 4%) than CDI patients without cirrhosis. Further, recurrent CDI and cirrhosis-related complications were two of the biggest causes of readmission.Bajaj et al.?[1]Clostridium difficile Is associated with poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis: A national and tertiary center perspective.Patients with CDAD and cirrhosis experienced higher rates of mortality (13.8% vs. 8.2%), LOS (14.4 days vs. 6.7 days), and charges ($79,351 vs. $35,686) than patients with cirrhosis but not CDAD, and PPI use was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and CDI than those with cirrhosis.