ER stress was induced by RNAi

ER stress was induced by RNAi. these tumors do not self-destruct. Levi-Ferber et al. exposed tumor cells from the worms to chemicals or to genetic modifications that cause unfolded proteins to accumulate inside the cell. This build-up of proteins stresses a structure in the cell called the endoplasmic reticulum. Normally, if endoplasmic reticulum stress gets too high, the cell activates various pathways to relieve the stress, and if these fail, the cell self-destructs. Levi-Ferber et al. showed that a protein called IRE-1, which senses endoplasmic reticulum stress, caused the tumor cells to change into a type of noncancerous cell. After the change, the cells were also more sensitive to self-destruction. This meant that tumors grew more slowly and ended up smaller, allowing the animals to survive longer. Together, the experiments suggest that treatments that force cancer cells to become a different cell type might be one way to prevent the emergence of treatment-resistant tumor cells. Future research will be needed to investigate exactly how IRE-1 causes the identity of the cell to change, and to see if this process could treat other kinds of cancer. DOI: Introduction A major challenge in the tumor therapy field is the development of new strategies to eliminate tumors and cancer cells. Whereas most of the current therapeutic strategies are based on apoptosis induction in Lometrexol disodium the Rabbit Polyclonal to SLC9A3R2 tumor cells, the effectiveness of these approaches is limited due to acquired apoptosis resistance (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011). Thus, deciphering ways to restore apoptosis sensitivity to tumorous cells that acquired apoptosis resistance may revive old tools with therapeutic potential to eliminate tumor cells. The (GermLine Development defective) gene encodes a germline-specific QUAKING-like RNA binding protein, which represses the translation of a variety of germline transcripts (Jungkamp et al., 2011; Wright et al., 2011). Consequently, GLD-1 regulates many aspects of germ cell biology (Francis et al., 1995a, 1995b; Kadyk and Kimble, 1998; Jan et al., 1999; Hansen et al., 2004; Ciosk et al., 2006). One of the striking consequence of a deficiency in is the formation Lometrexol disodium of a proximal germline tumor that fills the gonad (Francis et al., 1995a). This germline tumor is the result of re-entry of meiotic germ cells into the mitotic cell cycle instead of maturing into oocytes (Francis et al., 1995a). Importantly, some aspects of tumorigenesis are exhibited in the germline tumor model. These include the ability of the tumorous germ cells to proliferate in a growth factorCindependent manner (Francis et al., 1995a) and their regulation by genes homologous to known human oncogenes or human tumor suppressor genes (Pinkston-Gosse and Kenyon, 2007). Notably, these tumorous germ cells acquired resistance to apoptosis (Gumienny et al., 1999). In addition, some precocious germ cell transdifferentiation into ectopic somatic cells has been reported to occur at a low frequency in tumor model. Results ER stress induces Lometrexol disodium apoptosis in the gonads of RNAi (encodes a component of COPII-coated vesicles required for the export of cargo from the ER [Witte et al., 2011]). Both treatments specifically induce ER stress (Levi-Ferber et al., 2014). As previously reported (Gumienny et al., 1999), no apoptotic corpses representing physiological germ cell apoptosis were detected in the tumorous gonads in the absence of ER stress (Figure 1A,B and Figure 1figure supplement 1). However, we consistently detected SYTO12-labeled corpses in tumorous gonads of RNAi-treated animals exposed to ER stress induced either by genetic means (i.e., RNAi) or Lometrexol disodium by chemical means (i.e., tunicamycin) (Figure 1A,B and Figure 1figure supplement 1). Open in a separate window Figure 1. Apoptotic corpses are detected in the gonads of RNAi. RNAi knocked down GLD-1 protein levels to a similar extent upon treatment with control or RNAi (see Figure 1figure supplement 2). At least 40 gonads of each genotype were analyzed. DOI: Figure 1figure supplement 1. Open in a separate window Apoptotic cell corpses are detected in the gonads of tunicamycin-treated tumorous animals.Representative micrographs showing gonads (x400) of day-3 RNAi-treated animals treated with either 45 g/ml tunicamycin or DMSO as of L4 and stained with SYTO12.